The second half of embryogenesis, from day 29 to day 56 of development, is known as organogenesis, because it is during this time that organ development occurs.
Defects acquired during organogenesis tend to be milder than those of blastogenesis and affect single rather than multiple parts of the body and generally allow for survival of the developing organism. Defects may include cleft palate, webbed fingers, hypospadias (incomplete closure of the male urethra), and development of an extra finger.
abnormalities of the fetal stage
Minor anomalies are subtle defects of appearance and structure evaluated subjectively or by measurement. While malformations arise during blastogenesis and organogenesis, minor anomalies are defined as arising during phenogenesis (“attainment of final form,” between days 57 and 266 of development).
During this time, enormous growth of the fetus, maturation of function and cell types in every organ, and acquisition of individual attributes occur. The degree of heredity of a given physical trait is variable, with some traits being strongly genetic and others being influenced largely by environmental factors.
Genetically caused defects often involve several or many genes inherited from both parents. Such variability is sometimes referred to as multifactorially (polygenically) determined.
The latest-developing, mildest of malformations are rather common in the population and many appear to be dominantly inherited.
Some of these are internal anomalies and may not be discovered until an autopsy after death from noncongenital causes or following an injury, when physical examination may reveal, for example, a defect of the heart or brain. death.
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